آموزش شيوة برداشتِ صحيح از مصاديق در طراحي معماري منظر

طراحان منظر از منابع مختلف براي ايده‌پردازي الهام مي‌گيرند. يکي از منابع الهام معماران منظر، آثار گذشته است. با توجه به رواج بهره‌گيري از آثار سايرين در طراحي دانشجويان، اين سؤال مطرح است که چگونه مي‌توان دانشجويان معماري منظر را در جهت بهره‌گيري صحيح از مصاديق در ايده‌پردازي هدايت کرد. در اين مقاله ابتدا به کمک نظرات ساير محققان، انواع منشأ ايده‌پردازي معماري منظر به صورت منابع الهام دروني و بيروني مورد بررسي قرار مي‌گيرد و جايگاه الهام از مصاديق در بين ساير منابع شناخته مي‌شود. سپس به کمک تئوري برداشتِ ساختاري، انواع برداشت در قالب چهار نوع برداشت ساختاري، برداشت سطحي، کپي‌برداري، و استعاره معرفي مي‌شوند. آنگاه راهکارهاي ساير محققان در جهت رسيدن به برداشت صحيح در آموزش معماري منظر مورد بررسي قرار گرفته و راهکارهايي شامل انتخاب نمونة مناسب، شناخت برداشت صحيح، و تمرين برداشت صحيح ارائه خواهد شد. نتايج اين تحقيق نشان مي‌دهد که آموزش معماري منظر در جهت توانمند ساختن دانشجويان براي برداشت صحيح راه دشواري پيش رو دارد و علاوه بر اينکه دانشجويان بايد برداشت صحيح را تمرين کنند، مدرسان منظر نيز بايد در اين خصوص آگاهي‌هاي لازم را داشته باشند.
واژگان کلیدی
آموزش معماري منظر، ايده پردازي، منابع الهام، برداشت صحيح.

منابع و مآخذ مقاله

Bearman, Christopher, Linden J Ball and Thomas C

Ormerod. “An Exploration of Real-World Analogical

Problem Solving in Novices.” In 24th Conference of the

Cognitive Science Society, 2002.pp. 101-106.

Bonnardel, Nathalie. “Towards Understanding and

Supporting Creativity in Design: Analogies in a

Constrained Cognitive Environment.” Knowledge-Based

Systems 13, no. 7 (2000): 505-513.

Broadbent, Geoffrey. Design in Architecture: Architecture

Cardoso, Carlos and Petra Badke-Schaub. “Idea Fixation in

Design: The influence of Pictures and Words.” In ICORD 09:

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Research

into Design, Bangalore, India 07.-09.01. 2009, 2009.

-------- . “Fixation or Inspiration: Creative Problem Solving

in Design.” The Journal of Creative Behavior 45, no. 2 (2011):


-------- . “The Influence of Different Pictorial

Representations During Idea Generation.” The Journal of

Creative Behavior 45, no. 2 (2011): 130-146.

Cardoso, Carlos, Petra Badke-Schaub and Ana Luz. “Design

Fixation on Non-Verbal Stimuli: The Influence of Simple

Vs. Rich Pictorial Information on Design Problem-Solving.”

In ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical

Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering

Conference, 995-1002: American Society of Mechanical

Engineers, 2009.

Casakin, Hernan. “Visual Analogy as a Cognitive Strategy

in the Design Process: Expert Versus Novice Performance.”

journal of Design Research 4, no. 2 (2004): 253-268.

Casakin, Hernan and Gabriela Goldschmidt. “Expertise

and the Use of Visual Analogy: Implications for Design

Education.” Design Studies 20, no. 2 (1999): 153-175.

Chan, Joel, Katherine Fu, Christian Schunn, Jonathan

Cagan, Kristin Wood and Kenneth Kotovsky. “On the

Benefits and Pitfalls of Analogies for Innovative Design:

Ideation Performance Based on Analogical Distance,

Commonness, and Modality of Examples.” Journal of

mechanical design 133, no. 8 (2011): 081004.

Cheng, Peiyao, Ruth Mugge and Jan PL Schoormans. “A

New Strategy to Reduce Design Fixation: Presenting Partial

Photographs to Designers.” Design Studies 35, no. 4 (2014):


Cheong, Hyunmin and L. H. Shu. “Using Templates and

Mapping Strategies to Support Analogical Transfer in

Biomimetic Design.” Design Studies 34, no. 6 (2013): 706-

Chrysikou, Evangelia G and Robert W Weisberg. “Following

the Wrong Footsteps: Fixation Effects of Pictorial Examples

in a Design Problem-Solving Task.” Journal of Experimental

the Impact of Visual Stimuli on Design Problem Solving

Performance.” Design Studies 27, no. 5 (2006): 549-569.

Gonçalves, Milene, Carlos Cardoso and Petra Badke-

Schaub. “How Far Is Too Far? Using Different Abstraction in

Textual and Visual Stimuli.” In DS 70: Proceedings of DESIGN

, the 12th International Design Conference, Dubrovnik,

Croatia, 2012.

-------- . “Around You: How Designers Get Inspired.”

Proceedings ICED2011 7, (2011): 404-413.

-------- . “Find Your Inspiration: Exploring Different Levels

of Abstraction in Textual Stimuli.” In 2nd international

conference on design creativity (ICDC2012), Glasgow UK,

-------- . “Inspiration Peak: Exploring the Semantic Distance

between Design Problem and Textual Inspirational

Stimuli.” International Journal of Design Creativity and

Innovation 1, no. 4 (2013): 215-232.

-------- . “What Inspires Designers? Preferences on

Inspirational Approaches During Idea Generation.” Design

Studies 35, no. 1 (2014): 29-53.

Heylighen, Ann and Herman Neuckermans. “Are Architects

Natural Case-Based Designers? Experts Speaking.” The

Design Journal 5, no. 2 (2002): 8-22.

Howard, T.J., A.M. maier, B. Onarheim and M. Friis-Olivarius.

“Overcoming Design Fixation through Education and

Creativity Methods.” In The 19th International Conference on

Engineering Design. ICED 13, 139-148, 2013.

Jansson, David G and Steven M Smith. “Design Fixation.”

Design Studies 12, no. 1 (1991): 3-11.

Jencks, Charles. “The New Paradigm in Architecture.”

Architectural Review 213, no. 1272 (2003): 72-7.

Jormakka, Kari, Oliver Schürer and Dörte Kuhlmann. Basics

Design Methods: Birkhäuser, 2008.

Linsey, JS, I Tseng, K Fu, J Cagan, KL Wood and C Schunn. “A

Study of Design Fixation, Its Mitigation and Perception in

Engineering Design Faculty.” Journal of Mechanical Design

, no. 4 (2010): 041003.

Matlock, Elizabeth. The Search for Appropriate Form: The

and the Human Sciences: John Wiley & Sons New York, USA,

Broadbent, Geoffrey and Anthony Ward. Design Methods in

Architecture: Lund Humphries London, 1969.

Cai, Hui, Ellen Yi-Luen Do and Craig M. Zimring. “Extended

Linkography and Distance Graph in Design Evaluation: An

Empirical Study of the Dual Effects of Inspiration Sources

in Creative Design.” Design Studies 31, no. 2 (2010): 146-

Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 31, no. 5

(2005): 1134.

Cross, Nigel. “Designerly ways of knowing”. Design Studies

, no. 4 (1982), 221-227.

Dahl, Darren W and Page Moreau. “The Influence and Value

of Analogical Thinking During New Product Ideation.”

Journal of Marketing Research 39, no. 1 (2002): 47-60.

Durie, Jamie. Inspired: The Ideas That Shape & Create My

Design: HarperCollins, 2006.

Eckert, Claudia and Martin Stacey. “Sources of Inspiration:

A Language of Design.” Design Studies 21, no. 5 (2000):


Eilouti, Buthayna Hasan. “Design Knowledge Recycling

Using Precedent-Based Analysis and Synthesis Models.”

Design Studies 30, no. 4 (2009): 340-368.

Fisher, Melissa, “The Highline: New York City’s park in the

sky.” Available online at



THE%20HIGH%20LINE%20-%20NYC.pdf. 2018

Gausa, Manuel and Susanna Cros. The Metapolis Dictionary

of Advanced Architecture: City, Technology and Society in the

Information Age: Actar, 2003.

Gentner, Dedre. “Structure-Mapping: A Theoretical

Framework for Analogy.” Cognitive science 7, no. 2 (1983):


Gentner, Dedre and Arthur B Markman. “Structure

Mapping in Analogy and Similarity.” American psychologist

, no. 1 (1997): 45.

Goldschmidt, Gabriela. “Visual Analogy: A Strategy for

Design Reasoning and Learning.” Design knowing and

learning: Cognition in design education, (2001): 199-220.

-------- . “Avoiding Design Fixation: Transformation and

Abstraction in Mapping from Source to Target.” The Journal

of creative behavior 45, no. 2 (2011): 92-100.

Goldschmidt, Gabriela and Anat Litan Sever. “Inspiring

Design Ideas with Texts.” Design Studies 32, no. 2 (2011):


Goldschmidt, Gabriela and Maria Smolkov. “Variances in

Relationship between Landscape Architecture and Art in

Three Time Periods: ProQuest, 2008.

McGinty, Tim. “Concepts in Architecture.” Introduction to

architecture, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, (1979): 208-235.

Moore, A. “The Sierra in the city: Lawrence Halprin and

Levi plaza.” Available online at http://experiments.

halprin-and-levis-plaza/ .2016.

Mougenot, Celine, Carole Bouchard, Ameziane Aoussat

and Steve Westerman. “Inspiration, Images and Design:

An Investigation of Designers Information Gathering

Strategies.” Journal of Design Research 7, no. 4 (2008): 331-

Ozkan, Ozgu and Fehmi Dogan. “Cognitive Strategies of

Analogical Reasoning in Design: Differences between

Expert and Novice Designers.” Design Studies 34, no. 2

(2013): 161-192.

Sharky, Bruce. Thinking About Landscape Architecture:

Principles of a Design Profession for the 21st Century:

Routledge, 2016.

Smith, Kendra Schank. Architects’ Drawings: A Selection

of Sketches by World Famous Architects through History:

Routledge, 2005.

Smith, Steven M and Julie Linsey. “A Three‐Pronged

Approach for Overcoming Design Fixation.” The Journal of

Creative Behavior 45, no. 2 (2011): 83-91.

Tsenn, Joanna, Olufunmilola Atilola, Daniel A. McAdams

and Julie S. Linsey. “The Effects of Time and Incubation

on Design Concept Generation.” Design Studies 35, no. 5

(2014): 500-526.

Vosniadou, Stella and Andrew Ortony. Similarity and

Analogical Reasoning: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Youmans, Robert J and Thomaz Arciszewski. “Design

Fixation: Classifications and Modern Methods of

Prevention.” Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design,

Analysis and Manufacturing 28, no. 02 (2014): 129-137.

Youmans, Robert J . “The Effects of Physical Prototyping

and Group Work on the Reduction of Design Fixation.”

Design Studies 32, no. 2 (2011): 115-138.

  • در حال حاضر ارجاعی نیست.